The surface density of the solar energy at ground level is low. Its average annual value in the temperate can go roughly from 1200 to 1900 kWh/m2/yr (kilowatt hours per square meter / year) which correspond respectively to 3.3 and 5.2 kWh per day on average. This will generally involve the exploitation of renewable energy sources requires large areas for water collection entail considerable territory thus causing a high unit cost of secondary energy (thermal, electrical, etc.). Produced and making it difficult to achieve competitiveness economic.
In Italy, the traditional sources will constitute the main reservoir energy for many years. And, even though it has long fantasized about the 'next' end of oil and despite the difficulty 'to meet the ever-growing demand, We will continue to live with the addiction barrel for a few decades.
Just recently the CEO of Eni, Paolo Scaroni, estimated in 70 years the world's reserves. According Scaroni our planet would the availability 'of reserves called "safe" over a billion barrels. To these would be added to the reserves, "probable" and the "possible". For a total of about five billion barrels of oil. Useless, so, too many illusions about rapid changes dictated by the epochal 'magnificent and progressive' of the Green Energy.
We must say that the Kyoto Protocol, like all international agreements, presents the major limitation of the "non-enforceability." Several eminent jurists believe that international law is not a true "right", because the penalties to the violation of the rules can not be imposed on the Member by any organ independent from them. Like all international agreements, its success depends largely on the political will of the States which have ratified it.
We also say that the Kyoto Protocol is the result of a laborious process of mediation has thus also rules formulated in a generic way that can lend itself to different interpretations.
The system charges penalize the final retail price of electricity, which in Italy is higher than 25 percent compared to other major European countries. The major charges applied in the bill to promote clean energy impact for almost half (10% of 25%) on the total price.
The differences between the various states are reflected in the first instance on the prices of the wholesale electricity market which also show a significant difference between Italy and the rest of Europe. The price in our country is equal to about 66 € / MWh, a slight decrease, while in other countries (France, Germany, Spain, Austria, the United Kingdom) is between 45 and 50 € / MWh.
From flooring to roads, the artificial leaves. Albeit with less emphasis on other energy sources, including piezoelectricity is making inroads in the market, with a view to contributing to the turning green of our cities.
First studies on the subject.
Date back to 1880 when the first studies on the subject Pierre and Jacques Curie theorized the piezoelectric phenomenon. The criterion of operation is in the word itself: "Electric pressure" which is the ability of some crystalline materials to create an electrical potential difference when subjected to mechanical stress. These principles found the first applications for military purposes during World War II as the first piezoelectric floor was nothing more than a particular carpet on which American soldiers produced electricity through the exercises that will be, at the above.